Exploring Different Kinds of Springs in CNC Machining(press fit tolerancing Kelly)

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Springs play a vital role in various industries and applications, providing essential functionality across numerous devices and machinery. In this article, we will delve into the world of springs, focusing on their different types and how they are produced using the precision technique of Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machining.

1. Understanding Springs:
Springs are mechanical devices designed to store or release energy when subjected to external forces. They possess elastic properties that allow for deformation under stress and then return to their original shape once the force is removed. The choice of spring depends on its intended application, considering factors such as load requirements, environmental conditions, space limitations, and desired performance characteristics.

2. Types of Springs:
a) Compression Springs:
Compression springs are widely used due to their ability to absorb compressive loads and offer resistance until reaching their solid height. These springs work by reducing the spring's length upon the application of an axial force. Common applications include automotive suspensions, industrial equipment, and even mattresses.

b) Extension Springs:
Extension springs are designed to resist stretching forces while absorbing and storing energy. When pulled apart, these springs extend in length and create tension. Common applications include trampolines, garage doors, and various medical devices.

c) Torsion Springs:
Torsion springs exert rotational force rather than linear force. Primarily used in applications requiring torque or angular rotation, torsion springs find utilization in clothespins, hinges, balance scales, and engine throttle mechanisms.

d) Leaf Springs:
Leaf springs consist of multiple layers of metal strips stacked together, forming a robust suspension system mainly employed in automobiles and heavy-duty vehicles. These springs offer high durability, stability, and excellent shock absorption capabilities.

e) Constant Force Springs:
Constant force springs provide nearly constant force throughout their deflection range. This type of spring can be found in retractable tape measures, window blinds, and other applications requiring smooth extension and retraction.

3. CNC Machining in Spring Production:
CNC machining is a precise manufacturing process that involves the use of pre-programmed computer software to control the movement of various tools and machinery. The application of CNC machining has revolutionized spring production, ensuring accuracy, consistency, and repeatability.

a) Design and Programming:
The first step in spring production through CNC machining is designing the springs using specialized CAD (Computer-Aided Design) software. This allows engineers to create 2D or 3D models with specific dimensions, tolerances, and spring characteristics. Once the design is finalized, the programming stage commences, where instructions for tool paths, cutting depths, and operations are coded into the CNC machine's language.

b) Material Selection:
Choosing the appropriate material for spring production is crucial to meet desired load requirements and environmental conditions. Commonly used materials include stainless steel, carbon steel, titanium, and various alloys, each offering unique properties such as corrosion resistance, elasticity, and tensile strength.

c) CNC Machining Process:
Using the programmed instructions, the CNC machine carries out the precise cutting and shaping of the chosen material to produce the desired type of spring. This often involves techniques like wire forming, coiling, bending, and heat treatment processes to ensure proper functionality and longevity of the final product. CNC machines enable intricate designs and allow for quick adjustments in case modifications are needed.

d) Quality Control:
Throughout the CNC machining process, strict quality control measures are implemented to ensure dimensional accuracy, surface finish, and mechanical performance of the springs. These measures may involve non-destructive testing methods, such as visual inspection, hardness testing, and stress testing to validate the integrity of the produced springs.


Springs serve as vital components across industries, providing fundamental functions and contributing to the efficiency and stability of numerous devices and mechanisms. Understanding the different types of springs and their production through CNC machining allows engineers to select the most suitable option for specific applications. With the aid of precision technology, spring manufacturing has significantly advanced, ensuring reliable performance, consistency, and durability in diverse industries. CNC Milling CNC Machining